Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-heme iron oxidase central to penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis, catalyzes an energetically demanding chemical transformation to produce isopenicillin N from the tripeptide delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (ACV). We describe the synthesis of two cyclopropyl-containing tripeptide analogues, delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-beta-methyl-d-cyclopropylglycine and delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-cyclopropylglycine, designed as probes for the mechanism of IPNS. We have solved the X-ray crystal structures of these substrates in complex with IPNS and propose a revised mechanism for the IPNS-mediated turnover of these compounds. Relative to the previously determined IPNS-Fe(II)-ACV structure, key differences exist in substrate orientation and water occupancy, which allow for an explanation of the differences in reactivity of these substrates.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





4755 - 4762


Aspergillus nidulans, Crystallization, Crystallography, X-Ray, Models, Molecular, Oligopeptides, Oxidoreductases