Towards the Development of an In vivo Chemical Probe for Cyclin G Associated Kinase (GAK).
Asquith CRM., Bennett JM., Su L., Laitinen T., Elkins JM., Pickett JE., Wells CI., Li Z., Willson TM., Zuercher WJ.
SGC-GAK-1 (1) is a potent, selective, cell-active chemical probe for cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK). However, 1 was rapidly metabolized in mouse liver microsomes by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation, displaying rapid clearance in liver microsomes and in mice, which limited its utility in in vivo studies. Chemical modifications of 1 that improved metabolic stability, generally resulted in decreased GAK potency. The best analog in terms of GAK activity in cells was 6-bromo-N-(1H-indazol-6-yl)quinolin-4-amine (35) (IC50 = 1.4 μM), showing improved stability in liver microsomes while still maintaining a narrow spectrum activity across the kinome. As an alternative to scaffold modifications we also explored the use of the broad-spectrum cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) to decrease intrinsic clearance of aminoquinoline GAK inhibitors. Taken together, these approaches point towards the development of an in vivo chemical probe for the dark kinase GAK.