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Oxidative stress is implicated in several pathologies such as AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as in normal aging. As a model system to study the response of cells to oxidative insults, glutamate toxicity on a mouse nerve cell line, HT-22, was examined. Glutamate exposure kills HT-22 via a nonreceptor-mediated oxidative pathway by blocking cystine uptake and causing depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), leading to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and, ultimately, apoptotic cell death. Several HT-22 subclones that are 10-fold resistant to exogenous glutamate were isolated and the mechanisms involved in resistance characterized. The expression levels of neither heat shock proteins nor apoptosis-related proteins are changed in the resistant cells. In contrast, the antioxidant enzyme catalase, but not glutathione peroxidase nor superoxide dismutase, is more highly expressed in the resistant than in the parental cells. In addition, the resistant cells have enhanced rates of GSH regeneration due to higher activities of the GSH metabolic enzymes gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH reductase, and GSH S-transferases activities are also elevated. As a consequence of these alterations, the glutamate resistant cells are also more resistant to organic hydroperoxides and anticancer drugs that affect these GSH enzymes. These results indicate that resistance to apoptotic oxidative stress may be acquired by coordinated changes in multiple antioxidant pathways.

Original publication




Journal article


Free Radic Biol Med

Publication Date





1375 - 1389


Animals, Antioxidants, Biological Transport, Catalase, Cell Line, Cell Survival, Cystathionine, Cystine, Drug Resistance, Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase, Glutamic Acid, Glutathione, Heat-Shock Proteins, Homocysteine, Mice, Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein, Neoplasm Proteins, Oxidative Stress, Oxidoreductases, Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, Time Factors, Up-Regulation, bcl-2-Associated X Protein